Übersetzung von meat – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. meat. noun. /miːt/. ○. the flesh of animals or birds used as food. das Fleisch; Fleisch- She does not. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für meat im Online-Wörterbuch wattledcrane.com (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'meat' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
Übersetzung für "meat" im DeutschÜbersetzung von meat – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. meat. noun. /miːt/. ○. the flesh of animals or birds used as food. das Fleisch; Fleisch- She does not. Übersetzung im Kontext von „meat“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: meat products, fresh meat, meat product, poultry meat, minced meat. Übersetzung für 'meat' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
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Such a technique has already been perfected for industrial applications in manufacturing objects made out of plastic, nylon, metal, glass and other synthetic materials.
The most common variation of the process involves incrementally depositing a filament in layers onto a bed until the whole object is created.
This method will most likely lend itself best to the application of cultured meat as opposed to other types such as binder jetting, material jetting or stereolithography which require a specific kind of resin or powder.
In this instance, a filament of muscle cells can be printed into a structure meant to resemble a finished meat product which can then be further processed for cell maturation.
This technique has been demonstrated in a collaboration between 3D bioprinting solutions and Aleph Farms which successfully used additive manufacturing to structure turkey cells on the International Space Station.
Scaffolds are placed inside bioreactors so that cell growth and specialization can occur. Bioreactors are large machines similar to brewery tanks which expose the cells to a large variety of environmental factors that are necessary to promote either proliferation or differentiation.
The temperature of the bioreactor must replicate in vivo conditions. In the case of mammalian cells, this requires heating to 37 degrees Celsius.
Alternatively, insect cells can be grown at room temperature. Cells can either be cultivated in continuous or fed-batch systems. The former entails inoculating and harvesting cells in a constant process so that there are always cells in the bioreactor.
Fed-batch systems mean inoculating the cells, culturing them and harvesting them in one distinct period.
Stirred tank bioreactors are the most widely used configuration in which an impeller increases the flow, thereby homogenizing the culture media and a diffuser facilitates the exchange of oxygen into the media.
This system is generally used for suspended cultures but can also be used for cells that require attachment to another surface if microcarriers are also included.
Fixed bed bioreactors are commonly used for adherent cultures. They feature strips of fibres that are packed together to form a bed to which cells can attach.
Aerated culture media is circulated through the bed. In airlift bioreactors, the culture media is aerated into a gaseous form using air bubbles which are then scattered and dispersed amongst the cells.
Perfusion bioreactors are common configurations for continuous cultivation. They continuously drain media saturated with lactic acid that is void of nutrients and fill it with replenished media.
The elements outlined above apply to the cultivation of animal muscle tissue. Such products include milk, honey, eggs, cheese, gelatin which are made of various proteins rather than cells.
In such cases, these proteins must be fermented much like in recombinant protein production, alcohol brewing and the generation of many plant-based products like tofu, tempeh and sauerkraut.
Firstly, as proteins are coded for by specific genes, the genes encoding for the protein of interest are synthesized into a plasmid - a closed loop of double helical genetic information.
This plasmid, called the recombinant DNA, is then inserted into a bacterial specimen using genetic transformation.
For this to happen, the bacteria needs to be competent i. Horizontal gene transfer is significantly more challenging in eukaryotic organisms than prokaryotic organisms because eukaryotic organisms have both a cell membrane and a nuclear membrane which the plasmid needs to penetrate whereas prokaryotic organisms only have a cell membrane.
For this reason, prokaryotic bacteria are often favoured. Then, the bacteria can incubate in warm water, opening up large pores on the surface of the cell through which the plasmid can enter.
Next, the bacteria is fermented on sugar which will encourage it to grow and duplicate and in the process it will express its DNA as well as the transferred plasmid resulting in protein.
Finally, the solution is purified in order to separate out the residual protein. This can be done by introducing an antibody raised against the protein of interest which will kill bacteria cells not containing the protein.
Through centrifugation, the solution can be spun around an axis with a sufficient amount of force to separate solids from liquids or it could be soaked in a well buffered ionic solution that employs osmosis to leach the water from bacteria and kill them.
The culture media is an essential component of in vitro cultivation. It is responsible for providing the macromolecules, nutrients and growth factors necessary for cell proliferation.
Sourcing growth factors is one of the most challenging aspects of cellular agriculture. Traditionally, it involves the use of fetal bovine serum FBS which is a blood product extracted from fetal dairy cows.
Besides the argument that its production is unethical, it is also contradictory to the initial goal of cellular agriculture to be independent of the use of animals.
Furthermore, its chemical composition varies greatly depending on the animal, so it cannot be uniformly quantified chemically.
The current alternative is to generate each of these growth factors individually using recombinant protein production. In this process, the genes coding for the specific factor are integrated into bacteria which is then fermented to express an abundance of the molecule.
However, due to the added complexity of this process, it is particularly expensive. The ideal culture medium would be chemically quantifiable and accessible to ensure simplicity in production, cheap and not dependent on animals.
There are a variety of companies currently invested in developing effective plant based culture, including Future Fields, Multus Media and Biftek.
A common challenge to bioreactors and scaffolds is developing system configurations that enable all cells to gain exposure to culture media while simultaneously optimizing spatial requirements.
In the cell proliferation phase, prior to the introduction of the scaffold, many cell types need to be attached to a surface in order to support growth.
As such, cells must be grown in confluent monolayers only one cell thick which necessitates a lot of surface area.
This poses practicality challenges on large scales. As such, systems may incorporate microcarriers - small spherical beads of glass or other compatible material which are suspended in the culture medium.
Cells adhere to these microcarriers as they would the sides of the bioreactor which increases the amount of available surface area.
In the cell differentiation phase, the cells may be seeded to a scaffold and so do not require the use of microcarriers.
However, in these instances, the density of the cells on the scaffold means that not all cells have an interface with culture media, leading to cell death and necrotic centers within the meat.
When muscle is cultivated in vivo , this issue is circumvented as the ECM delivers nutrients into the muscle through blood vessels.
As such, many emerging scaffolds are aiming to replicate such networks. Similarly, scaffolds must simulate many of the other characteristics of the ECM, most notably porosity, crystallinity, degradation, biocompatibility and functionality.
Few materials which emulate all these characteristics have been identified leading to the possibility of blending different materials with complementary properties.
As cellular agriculture is not widely considered a developed field, research does not have a significant basis of academic interest or funding streams.
However, this is incrementally changing as non for profits drive support and interest in the field. Notably, New Harvest has a fellowship program to support the research of specific graduate students and groups at various academic institutions.
Cultured meat will likely be exposed to the public on a global scale in the coming years, making consumer acceptance of the product an important concern.
A study looking at acceptance of cultured meat in China, India, and the USA "found high levels of acceptance of clean meat in the three most populous countries worldwide.
Several potential factors of consumer acceptance of cultured meat have been identified. Healthiness, safety, nutritional characteristics, sustainability, taste, and lower price, are all potential factors.
Green eating behavior, educational status, and food business, were cited as most important factors for this population.
The use of standardized descriptions would improve future research about consumer acceptance of cultured meat. Current studies have often reported drastically different rates of acceptance of the product, despite surveying similar populations.
More comparable research is considered a future goal for consumer acceptance studies of cultured meat. It is currently unknown how cultured meat will be received in worldwide markets.
Large amounts of studies are attempting to determine the current levels of consumer acceptance and identify methods to improve this value.
Currently there is a lack of clear answers surrounding this unknown, although a recent study has shown that consumers are willing to pay a premium for cultured meat.
Once cultured meat becomes more cost-efficient, it is necessary to decide who will regulate the safety and standardization of these products.
Prior to being available for sale, the European Union and Canada will require approved novel food applications. Additionally, the European Union requires that cultured animal products and production must prove safety, by an approved company application, which became effective as of 1 January Within the United States , the FDA Food and Drug Administration and the USDA United States Department of Agriculture have agreed to jointly regulate cultured meat.
Under the agreement, the FDA oversees cell collection, cell banks, and cell growth and differentiation, while the USDA oversees the production and labeling of human food products derived from the cells.
Large-scale production of cultured meat may or may not require artificial growth hormones to be added to the culture for meat production.
Researchers have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids could be added to cultured meat as a health bonus.
Due to the strictly controlled and predictable environment, cultured meat production has been compared to vertical farming , and some of its proponents have predicted that it will have similar benefits in terms of reducing exposure to dangerous chemicals like pesticides and fungicides, severe injuries, and wildlife.
Concern in regards to developing antibiotic resistance due to the use of antibiotics in livestock, and livestock-derived meat serving as a major source of disease outbreaks including bird flu, anthrax, swine flu, and listeriosis , and long-term processed meat consumption being associated with increased heart disease, digestive tract cancer, and type 2 diabetes currently plague livestock-based meat.
In regards to cultured meat, strict environmental controls and tissue monitoring can prevent infection of meat cultures from the outset, and any potential infection can be detected before shipment to consumers.
In addition to the prevention and lack of diseases and lack of the use of antibiotics, cultured meat can also leverage numerous biotechnology advancements, including increased nutrient fortification, individually-customized cellular and molecular compositions, and optimal nutritional profiles, all making it much healthier than livestock-sourced meat.
Although cultured meat is real meat consisting of genuine animal muscle cells, fat and support cells, as well as blood vessels,  that are the same in traditional meat, some consumers may find the high-tech production process repugnant.
Cultured meat has been described as fake or "Frankenmeat". Clean meat can be produced without the artificial hormones, antibiotics, steroids, medicine, and GMOs commonly used in factory farmed meat and seafood.
If a cultured meat product is different in appearance , taste , smell , texture , or other factors, it may not be commercially competitive with conventionally produced meat.
The lack of bone and cardiovascular system may be a disadvantage for dishes where these parts make appreciable culinary contributions.
Furthermore, cultured blood and bones could potentially be produced in the future as well. There have historically been concerns from the United Nations about the unrelenting production of traditional meat production for the growing world population.
Research has suggested that environmental impacts of cultured meat would be significantly lower than normally slaughtered beef. This biogas could then be burned to generate electricity for the greenhouse or a series of bioreactors.
A study by researchers at Oxford and the University of Amsterdam found that cultured meat was "potentially Koerner ,  and Hanna Tuomisto, a PhD student from Oxford University all believe it has less environmental impact.
One skeptic is Margaret Mellon of the Union of Concerned Scientists , who speculates that the energy and fossil fuel requirements of large-scale cultured meat production may be more environmentally destructive than producing food off the land.
Davis has speculated that both vertical farming in urban areas and the activity of cultured meat facilities may cause relatively little harm to the species of wildlife that live around the facilities.
Techniques of genetic engineering , such as insertion, deletion, silencing, activation, or mutation of a gene, are not required to produce cultured meat.
Cultured meat production allows the biological processes that normally occur within an animal to occur without the animal.
Since cultured meat is grown in a controlled, artificial environment, some have commented that cultured meat more closely resembles hydroponic vegetables, rather than GMO vegetables.
More research is being done on cultured meat, and although the production of cultured meat does not require techniques of genetic engineering, there is discussion among researchers about utilizing such techniques to improve the quality and sustainability of cultured meat.
Fortifying cultured meat with nutrients such as beneficial fatty acids is one improvement that can be facilitated through genetic modification.
The same improvement can be made without genetic modification, by manipulating the conditions of the culture medium. The introduction of myogenic regulatory factors, growth factors, or other gene products into muscle cells may increase production past the capacity of conventional meat.
To avoid the use of any animal products, the use of photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria has been proposed to produce the main ingredients for the culture media, as opposed to the very commonly used fetal bovine or horse serum.
The Australian bioethicist Julian Savulescu said "Artificial meat stops cruelty to animals, is better for the environment, could be safer and more efficient, and even healthier.
We have a moral obligation to support this kind of research. It gets the ethical two thumbs up. Alvaro proposes a virtue-oriented approach that may reveal aspects of the issue not yet explored, such as the suggestion that the obstinacy of wanting to produce lab-grown meat stems from unvirtuous motives, i.
Independent inquiries may be set up by certain governments to create a degree of standards for cultured meat. Cultured meat needs technically sophisticated production methods making it harder for communities to produce food self-sufficiently and potentially increasing dependence on global food corporations.
Jewish rabbinical authorities disagree whether cultured meat is kosher food that may be consumed, according to Jewish dietary laws.
However, many rabbis agree that if the original cells were taken from a slaughtered kosher animal then the cultured meat will be kosher.
With the development of cultured meat as a potentially large-scale product in the coming years, concerns from the Islamic faith regarding its viability are becoming increasingly important.
Debate in India over the Hindu consumption of cultured meat mainly excludes steak and burgers. Chandra Kaushik, president of the Hindu Mahasabha reports that he would "not accept it being traded in a marketplace in any form or being used for a commercial purpose.
He estimates that technological advancements would allow the product to be cost-competitive to traditionally sourced beef in approximately ten years.
Still, the main cost driver in cultured meat is the culture media due to the incorporation of the aforementioned FBS and other animal sera or reliance on alternative protein production.
This issue is compounded due to the quantity of culture media that is necessitated. There are a number of organizations working on decreasing the cost of culture media either by scaling recombinant protein production to make it more efficient or finding more cost-effective alternatives and configurations to current ingredients.
Since Dr. Post successfully produced the first cultured meat burger in , a variety of startups and organizations dedicated to developing or advancing cultured meat have been founded.
In , Maastricht University hosted the first International Conference on Cultured Meat. The two organizations also fund public research and produce educational content.
Organizations such as the Cellular Agriculture Society, Cellular Agriculture Canada, Cellular Agriculture France, Cellular Agriculture Australia and Cellular agriculture New Zealand were founded to advocate for cultured meat in their respective countries.
Publications such as Cell Agri and the Protein Report have also emerged in order to provide updates concerning the technology and business within the field.
At Tufts University, PhD candidate Natalie Rubio is conducting research into the field of entomoculture — cellular agriculture specifically applied to culturing insect tissue.
Insect cultures may have comparative benefits over mammalian cells in terms of their environmental tolerance, ability to proliferate in serum free media, ability to grow in suspension and increased nutritional profile.
The aim of my research is to develop a three-dimensional culture system for insect tissue biofabrication with consideration for food applications and to do this, Natalie is focusing on 1 cell line development and serum-free media formulation, 2 scaffold fabrication and 3 nutrient and texture analysis.
Also at Tufts University, PhD candidate and New Harvest Dissertation Awardee Mike McLelland has developed an interactome map of cardiac tissue in order to identify the active trophic factors provided to cells when they are grown in animal sera.
At the Newcastle University, Dr. Ricardo M Gouveia is investigating the effect of curved substrates on controlling the behaviour of stromal cells during growth in vitro.
He has thus far found that curvature is a cost-effective way to promote migration, proliferation, and self-organization. Such characteristics will ultimately help to improve the palatability of culture meat.
Fat is an integral component of inducing meat texture, taste and appeal however, a cultured meat product that features marbling - the interspersion of fat and muscle - has yet to be developed.
Muscle and fat cells require different cues in order to grow effectively. At the University of California, Los Angeles, Stephanie Kaweki is working on tuning scaffold properties so that they can support the growth of both muscle and fat cells.
At the University of Ottawa, the Pelling Lab is working on creating an open-source, plant-based scaffolding platform to support the 3D culture of mammalian cells promote cell invasion and proliferation, and retain shape and mechanical properties for several months in culture.
They are specifically investigating plant cellulose as it is the most abundant polymer on earth. Thus far, they have achieved results demonstrating that such a material is effective at stimulating certain characteristics such as topography and vascularization.
At Rice University, Andrew Stout is conducting research into the nutritional profile of cultured meat. Specifically, he is examining the possibility of using genetic engineering and bioprocessing techniques to enhance the nutritional quality of the resulting muscle tissue.
To date, many of the bioreactors used in cultured meat research have been at lab scale. The bioreactors used at the industrial level must be larger and in order to design them, we have to better understand the parameters muscle tissue relies on.
At the University of Bath, Scott Allan is aiming to understand reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, mass transfer limitations and metabolic stoichiometric requirements, to name a few.
At Reutlinger University, PhD candidate Jannis Wollschlager is working on creating a meat bioprinting process that will process both muscle and fat.
The technique will leverage computer assisted design models, co-culture media which support muscle and fat cells as well as animal free bio-inks suitable to the cell types.
The Big Idea Ventures BIV Venture Capital firm has launched their New Protein Fund which invests in emerging cell and plant-based food companies in New York and Singapore.
With plans to start their third round of accelerator companies in January , they have previously invested in MeliBio, Actual Veggies, Biftek.
They are based in San Francisco and are currently running their 10th cohort of companies. Cultured meat has often featured in science fiction.
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Pro Review kannst du dort einen neuen Wörterbuch-Eintrag eingeben bis zu einem Limit von unverifizierten Einträgen pro Benutzer.Meat The Victims is a new generation of the growing community of citizens willing to disobey unjust laws together to abolish animal exploitation. "One has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws." ~Martin Luther King Jr. #meatthevictims. Cultured meat is meat produced by in vitro cell culture of animal cells, instead of from slaughtered animals. It is a form of cellular agriculture.. Cultured meat is produced using many of the same tissue engineering techniques traditionally used in regenerative medicine. Learn German for free with this step by step online course! Learn the vocabulary for meat with this video, and don't forget to check out the free course on m. Doneness is a gauge of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on its colour, juiciness, and internal temperature when cooked. The gradations of cooking are most often used in reference to beef (especially steaks and roasts) but are also applicable to veal, pork, lamb, poultry, and seafood (but not fish). In large bowl, gently mix Ground Meat and Breadcrumbs until combined. Peel and dice on 1 Onion, heat 1 Tbsp of Butter in hot skillet, add diced Onion and Parsley, sauté until Onion is golden brown. Beat Eggs in large shallow container; add Salt, Pepper, Rosemary and Nutmeg to Egg and mix.